Diseases & Drugs
The risk of cardiac arrhythmias is increased in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (nationwide Swedish cohort study)
The patients with inflammatory bowel disease had an increased long-term risk of developing cardiac arrhythmias, with the exception of bradyarrhythmias
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can cross-react with Dengue virus and enhance its infection through antibody-dependent enhancement
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can cross-react with DENV-2 and enhance Dengue virus infection through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE).
Transfer of fecal material from Alzheimer’s disease patients to healthy young adult rats resulted in cognitive symptoms and impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis
Transfer of fecal material from Alzheimer’s disease patients to healthy young adult rats resulted in cognitive symptoms and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis.
Antiviral drugs have unrecognized antibacterial properties that may contribute to antibiotic resistance burden
A culture-based study, using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus cereus, has shown that antiviral drugs have previously unrecognized antibacterial properties that may contribute to antibiotic resistance burden.
Semorinemab, an anti-tau monoclonal antibody, did not improve functional and global outcomes in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (the phase II Lauriet study)
Results showed that semorinemab had a modest positive cognitive effect in patients with mild to moderate AD, but, did not result in improved functional or global outcomes.
In a recent case report, the authors from the US have warned about an increase in the incidence of leprosy cases without traditional risk factors in Florida, and rising evidence that leprosy has become endemic in the southeastern United States.
The WHO recently confirmed a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case in the United Arab Emirates-case description (from July 24, 2023)
On July 24, 2023, the World Health Organization announced a case of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the United Arab Emirates.
A disruption in the expression of steroid receptor coactivator 3 on the regulatory T cells led to the complete elimination of tumors in mouse models of cancer
The findings showed that SRC-3 is a key modulator of Tregs–mediated tumor escape. A disruption in the expression of SRC-3 in Tregs resulted in a complete elimination of tumors in aggressive syngeneic breast cancer mouse models.
A novel signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor as a safe and potentially effective treatment for cannabis use disorder (phase 1 and phase 2a randomized trials)
AEF0117 is the first member of a novel pharmacological class of inhibitors, called CB1-SSi, that change the activity of the target receptor in a signaling-specific manner.
Treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics, or mood stabilizers was not associated with a reduced risk of suicide in patients with borderline personality disorder (a nationwide Swedish study)
The use of ADHD medications was associated with a reduced risk of attempted or completed suicide, possibly due to diminished impulsivity. Treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics, or mood stabilizers does not seem to reduce suicidal behavior in patients with BPD.
The Japanese researchers used nuclear medicine techniques, trans-omic analysis of blood samples, and cultured cell experiments to examine how dysautonomia in Parkinson’s disease affects the intricate connection between the thyroid gland and the liver.
Similar changes in the synaptic proteome of humans with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and mouse model
This study revealed pronounced molecular changes in synapses purified from postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of humans with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in the cerebral cortex of Akap11-deficient mice, respectively.
The radioactivity of the 14C-tyrosine was discovered in the brain after gut microbial fermentation in pigs
The radioactivity of the 14C- tyrosine was found in the brain after gut microbial fermentation. This confirms the possibility that metabolites of gut-fermented amino acid precursors to neurotransmitters such as tyrosine, may have an impact on brain functions.
The review discusses the main pathophysiological mechanisms of heart-brain interaction leading to the neurogenic cardiac injury.
A vascular graft from a combination of tropoelastin and polyglycerol sebacate mimics the structure of living blood vessels
Researchers developed a novel small-diameter vascular graft that facilitates de novo formation of a structurally appropriate elastin-containing intima-media region following implantation.
The first atlas of pan-cancer mycobiome, the collective of fungi within the microbiome, — a survey of 35 types of cancer and their associated fungi. The results showed that fungi were detected in all cancer types examined and were often intracellular.
A report of the third case of HIV-1 cure after allogeneic CCR5Δ32/Δ32 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation provides detailed information about the virological and immunological signature before and after analytical treatment interruption.
Persons with disabilities experience more violence in their lifetime than non-disabled persons, and are three times more likely to be sexually assaulted. Physical and sexual abuse against women with disabilities is more frequent, even about twice as common as for women without disabilities.
The findings demonstrate that RNA-sequencing of amniotic fluid cells could be implemented in a clinical setting as a complementary diagnostic tool to whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing, to provide functional evidence for variants affecting expression or splicing that cannot be explained by DNA sequencing.
Due to their unique physicochemical properties, nanoparticles can directly cross the placenta and cause damage to the fetus, resulting in various fetal abnormalities. Nanotoxicity at the maternal–fetal interface involves various underlying molecular mechanisms such as oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, and autophagy.
The accumulation of nanoparticles in the reproductive organs of female mice impairs the development of oocytes and can compromise fertility. In addition, cancer treatment with nanomedicines seems to be affected by the specific distribution of nanoparticles in the female reproductive system.
The majority of patients with locked-in syndrome remain severely disabled, but, even small improvements in function can significantly increase the potential for activity and participation.
Brain pathology in deceased athletes who played contact sports and were younger than 30 years of age at the time of death
41% of 152 young brain donors who were exposed to repeated head impacts and who donated their brain to the UNITE Brain Bank, had chronic traumatic encephalopathy
Rapid improvement of severe myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease in two children treated with the IL-6 receptor blocker-tocilizumab
IL-6 receptor blocker tocilizumab rapidly improved the condition in both patients with severe, acute manifestations of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD).
Three metabolites as possible candidates for “toxic” gut–brain communication in patients with multiple sclerosis
Three metabolites from catabolism of two essential amino acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine, represent possible candidates for ‘toxic’ gut–brain communication in patients with multiple sclerosis.
The Pan American Health Organization as the regional office for the World Health Organization in the Americas issued a briefing note on July 10, 2023, regarding the unusual increase of cases of Guillain Barré Syndrome in different parts of Peru.
Higher risk of intracranial hemorrhage in healthy older people receiving daily low-dose aspirin (ASPREE randomized clinical trial)
The totals of intracranial hemorrhage resulting from a combination of hemorrhagic stroke and other causes of intracerebral hemorrhage, such as subdural, extradural, and subarachnoid bleeding, were significantly higher among individuals treated with aspirin than in individuals assigned to placebo.
Case report: a rare mutation in the complement factor I gene is associated with numerous episodes of recurrent aseptic meningitis
This case report demonstrated an association between a rare mutation in the complement factor I gene and numerous episodes of recurrent aseptic meningitis.
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 32 patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
This study reports the results of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 32 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
The bone marrow is a previously unrecognized site that promotes intimate interactions between autoreactive T cells and hematopoietic cells. The autoreactive T lymphocytes augment myelopoiesis (but not lymphopoiesis) of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells involving the CCL5-CCR5 axis.
In-depth review presented evidence for the eight hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs): pathological protein aggregation, synaptic and neuronal network dysfunction, aberrant proteostasis, cytoskeletal abnormalities, altered energy homeostasis, DNA and RNA defects, inflammation, and neuronal cell death.
Spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid-venous fistula as a cause of behavioral variant of fronto-temporal brain sagging syndrome
The behavioral variant of fronto-temporal brain sagging syndrome was investigated with digital subtraction myelography in the lateral decubitus position. The identification of a cerebrospinal fluid-venous fistula allows effective treatment, such as surgical ligation of the fistula.
Intracerebroventricular administration of soluble chemokine fractalkine after cuprizone-induced demyelination resulted in increased production of de novo oligodendrocytes and in vivo remyelination from activated parenchymal oligodendrocyte precursor cells.
The volumes of a callosal subregions terminating in the language-related posterior brain regions predict a stronger degree of language lateralization
The first tractography study that investigated the relation between the volumes and microstructural properties of callosal subregions and the degree of language lateralization. The volumes of callosal subregions terminating in the language-related posterior brain regions predicted a stronger degree of language lateralization.
This study has investigated changes in the organization of the neural network, neuronal metabolite concentrations and the structure of white or grey matter in the human brain during pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Presentations of Gender Differences
Women with the longest reproductive lifespan had a 5% lower ischemic stroke risk, and a 13% lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage when compared to women with the shortest reproductive lifespan.
Gender-specific differences in symptoms and abnormalities that persist following acute COVID-19 indicate that women are more likely to suffer from the long COVID-19 syndrome than men.
Females who survive a stroke have less favorable outcomes compared to their male counterparts. Women are more likely to have physical disabilities and limitations in the activities of daily living or basic components of self-care.
An increase of synaptosomal expression of the GluA1 and GluA2 AMPA receptor subunits has been found in the medial prefrontal cortex of females compared with males. In addition, ex vivo slice electrophysiology performed on tissues prepared from the medial prefrontal cortex demonstrated a higher amplitude and frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in female mice than in males.
This review articles discusses the gender-specific differences in several markers of ageing to shed more light on the differences in ageing and life expectancy between genders. They focused on oxidative and inflammatory processes, in both human and murine models.
The level of calcitonin gene–related peptide in plasma and tear fluid is related to the endogenous sex steroid levels in women with episodic migraine
The level of calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP) in plasma and tear fluid is related to the endogenous sex steroid levels in women with episodic migraine.
Gender-specific differences in brain structure and function are observed throughout development and are believed to contribute to differences in behavior, cognition, and the presentation of neurodevelopmental disorders.
The role of gender-gut microbiota interaction in the development of neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders
Two review articles analyze the specific interaction between gender and gut microbiota, in particular on the emergence of particular neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders.
Clinical evidence indicates that women have a greater number of post-concussive symptoms, specifically neurological and neurobehavioral symptoms, including increased reaction times and more difficulties with visual memory tasks, and delayed resolution of symptoms compared to men.
In-depth review on gender-specific differences in lymphocyte populations and their implications in the context of specific autoimmune diseases. The authors also discuss a gender-specific differences in T and B lymphocytes, and the effects of sex steroids on these cells.
Systematic review and network meta-analysis: the Mediterranean and low fat diets reduce all cause mortality in patients with increased cardiovascular risk
A meta-analysis of dietary programs found that Mediterranean and low fat diets reduce all cause mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients with increased cardiovascular risk. The absolute effects of both dietary programs were more pronounced for patients at high risk.
A positive association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and risk of colorectal cancer
These results showed a positive association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and the risk of colorectal cancer among men. The association was limited to distal colon cancer.
The Western-type diet contributes to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a clinically relevant mouse model
Metataxonomic and metabolomic studies have identified a specific microbe, Blautia producta and its metabolite, 2-oleoylglycerol, as clinically relevant bacterial and metabolic mediators that promote the onset and development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
A higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower risk for all-cause dementia. Specifically, participants with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean diet had a 23% lower risk to develop dementia than those with the lowest level of adherence.
Intermittent fasting modified the liver homeostatic regenerative program and highlighted the role of FGF/Wnt signaling interactions in modulating regeneration associated with fasting.
Rosemary extracts exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects, as well as chemoprotective effects, both in vitro and in vivo.
Women with the highest adherence to a Mediterranean diet before conception had the lowest risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preeclampsia/ eclampsia and gestational diabetes.